Sep 29

Tawarruq dan isu-isunya

FatawaKembali menulis selepas cuti raya selama seminggu. Berbagai perkara ingin dikongsikan sepanjang ramadhan dan aidil fitri. insyaAllah akan dikongsikan sekiranya ada kelapangan waktu untuk menulis di sini. Tulisan pada kali ini berkaitan tawarruq. Ingatkan bila berada dalam industri takaful tidak perlu lagi mengambil tahu tentang perkara lain. Rupa-rupanya kena ambil tahu juga memandangkan pengendali-pengendali takaful juga terlibat dalam pelaburan. Khususnya pelaburan dalam komoditi murabahah yang menggunapakai kaedah transaksi berasaskan tawarruq. Memandangkan baru-baru ini Akademi Fiqh OIC telah memutuskan Tawarruq munazzam sebagai muamalat riba jadi ia telah mengakibatkan suasana agak cemas sedikit kepada pihak-pihak bank dan juga pelabur. Tugas saya kali ini adalah untuk melakukan kajian dan memahami bagaimana kontrak tawarruq dijalankan dan mengaitkannya dengan keputusan Akademi fiqh OIC. Tulisan pada kali ini akan memuatkan artikel-artikel yang saya temui bagi menambah kefahaman kita semua. InsyaAllah sama-sama kita kongsikan.

1. Petikan daripada laman web ibfim

Source  :  Utusan Malaysia On-Line

Monday, November 05, 2007

Soal-Jawab Kewangan Islam

KAMI mengucapkan terima kasih kepada para pembaca yang mengikuti ruangan kewangan Islam ini dan juga kepada yang menghantar soalan-soalan menerusi e-mel kepada kami. Diharap melalui isu dan jawapan yang dikongsi dapat membantu para pembaca sekalian memahami lagi industri ini.

Yang sempat dimuatkan minggu ini adalah seperti berikut:

Soalan:

Mutakhir ini, didapati bermacam-macam produk kewangan Islam yang memakai prinsip-prinsip atau kontrak-kontrak Syariah yang jarang didengari sebelum ini. Dalam hal ini saya ingin bertanya tentang kontrak tawarruq yang diterima pakai dalam sesetengah produk perbankan Islam semasa?

Jawapan:

Kemusykilan saudara tentang hal berkenaan sebenarnya bukanlah suatu fenomena yang eksklusif yang dialami atau dirasai oleh saudara, malah fenomena ini turut dirasai oleh majoriti pengguna produk kewangan Islam di negara ini khususnya semenjak dasar liberalisasi dan keterbukaan polisi perbankan di negara kita mula diperkenalkan.

Untuk pengetahuan saudara, dalam menangani cabaran sistem kewangan yang begitu dinamik dan pesat perkembangannya, semacam persetujuan di kalangan para ulama dalam industri kewangan Islam di negara ini untuk mengamalkan sikap keterbukaan dalam menerima pandangan mazhab. Hal ini demkian khususnya disebabkan keperluan untuk menjaga maslahah sistem kewangan Islam supaya senantiasa kekal kompetitif dan berdaya saing serta senantiasa terkehadapan. Justeru, dewasa ini, kelihatan banyak produk dan instrumen yang di dasarkan diatas prinsip dan kontrak Syariah yang berasal atau terdapat dalam mazhab-mazhab lmuktabar yang lain selain daripada mazhab Syafie.

Secara ringkas mengenai kontrak tawarruq yang saudara tanyakan, ia sebenarnya adalah suatu kontrak yang melibatkan penjualan sesuatu barang kepada seseorang pembeli secara harga tertangguh. Pembeli tersebut kemudiannya menjual barang tersebut kepada orang ketiga secara tunai pada harga kurang daripada harga tertangguh dengan tujuan mendapatkan wang tunai..

Dari aspek bahasa, al-tawarruq dikatakan bahawa ia berakar dari perkataan Arab iaitu al-wariq, yang bermaksud wang perak, dirham atau logam perak Ia dinamakan tawarruq kerana ketika membeli barang tersebut secara bayaran bertangguh, pembeli tidak berniat menggunakan atau memanfaatkannya, tetapi hanya ingin menjadikannya laluan ke arah memperoleh wang tunai.

Kontrak al-tawarruq boleh digambarkan dalam pelbagai formasi. Namun secara kasarnya terdapat dua formasi al-tawarruq. Dalam formasi pertama , al-tawarruq berlaku dalam keadaan pembeli pertama membeli barangan secara ansuran dan menjualnya kepada pihak ketiga secara tunai dengan harga yang rendah. Dalam formasi sebegini, pihak ketiga tidak mempunyai kaitan langsung dengan penjual barangan pertama. Dalam kes sedemikian, penjual barangan pertama tidak boleh dikaitkan dengan jualan tunai yang dilakukan oleh pihak pembeli barangan selepas itu. Situasi ini diistilahkan sebagau al-tawarruq al-fardi oleh sesetengah sarjana mualamat semasa.

Walaupun pada prinsipnya al-tawarruq al-fardi dianggap harus oleh majoriti para ulama, tetapi setelah proses tawarruq menjadi satu kaedah untuk mendapatkan pembiayaan wang, para ulama telah berbeza pendapat tentang hukumnya.

Formasi kedua ialah formasi yang melibatkan amalan al-tawarruq yang digunakan dalam sesebuah sistem kewangan yang menjadikannya sebagai satu medium pembiayaan yang sistematik. Dalam hal ini, dalam kebanyakan keadaan, pembeli barangan terakhir tadi bertindak sebagai wakil kepada penjual barangan pertama ataupun penjual pertama akan mewakili pembeli terakhir dalam menguruskan kontrak. Menurut sesetengah penyelidik muamalat kontemporari, kaedah al-tawarruq sedemikian layak diistilahkan sebagai al-tawarruq al-munazzam atau al-tawarruq al-masrafi. Kebanyakan sistem perbankan moden mengamalkan tawarruq masrafi atau munazzam untuk memudahkan para pelanggan mendapatkan tunai (cash) tanpa perlu mencari pembeli barangan yang dibeli daripada bank.

Dalam konteks perbandingan secara kasar antara kontrak bay’ al-‘inah dengan kontrak al-tawarruq, kedua-duanya adalah sama dari sudut matlamat, iaitu untuk mendapat wang tunai menerusi transaksi jualan, dan berbeza dari dua sudut yang lain. Pertama, bal’ ‘inah tidak melibatkan pihak ketiga sebagai pembeli barangan jualan, tetapi tawarruq pula sebaliknya.. Kedua, bai’ ‘inah memerlukan barang jualan kembali semula kepada penjualnya atau barang belian kembali semula kepada pembelinya sedangkan tawarruq pula tidak beroperasi sedemikian.

Perspektif Hukum Berkenaan Kontrak al-Tawarruq

Oleh sebab kedudukan al-tawarruq hampir sama dengan bay’ al-‘inah, maka kebanyakan perbincangan berkenaan dengan al-tawarruq di bawah tajuk bay’ al-‘inah. Justeru dalil-dalil atau hujah kepada transaksi al-tawarruq telah dirumus oleh kebanyakan fuqaha’ bersama-sama hujah transaksi bay’ al-‘inah kecuali segolongan fuqaha’ khususnya daripada mazhab Hambali.

Secara ringkas, menyentuh berkenaan hukum al-tawarruq ini, boleh dikatakan bahawa terdapat tiga pola penghukuman terhadap kontrak ini jika ditinjau kepada perbendaharaan hukum para fuqaha’ dari pelbagai mazhab. Pola penghukuman yang pertama ialah pandangan yang mengatakan transaksi al-tawarruq adalah haram kerana ia menyerupai bay’ al-‘inah yang yang dipersepsikan haram kerana digunakan sebagai hilah kepada riba.

Pola kedua ialah pendapat yang mengatakan bahawa hukumnya adalah makruh kerana konsepnya yang hampir sama dengan bay’ al-‘inah.. Pola penghukuman ketiga ialah pendapat yang mengatakan ia adalah diharuskan, berasaskan prinsip bahawa semua urus niaga jual beli adalah diharuskan dan kerana terdapat perbezaan struktur yang nyata antara al-tawarruq dengan bay’ al-‘inah.

Oleh sebab masih terdapat keraguan berkenaan dengan “objektif riba” yang wujud dalam kontrak ini, sestengah sarjana hukum muamalat telah meletakkan beberapa syarat dalam mengharuskan kontrak al-tawarruq. Antara syarat-syarat berkenaan ialah ketiadaan institusi yang menawarkan pinjaman secara al-qard al-hasan, tidak menzahirkan akad seolah-olah menyerupai kontrak pinjaman dan jualan barangan oleh pembeli hendaklah setelah benar-benar berlaku perolehan milik.

Dalam arena hukum tempatan, konsep al-tawarruq diterima pakai khususnya dalam konteks peningkatan kualiti dan mutu keputusan Syariah serta dengan pengambilkiraan proses penyeragaman keputusan hukum dengan pusat-pusat kewangan Islam lain pada paras antarabangsa. Hal ini boleh dilihat dalam keputusan Majlis Penasihat Syariah Bank Negara Malaysia pada mesyuarat ke-51 bertarikh 28 Julai 2005 bersamaan 21 Jamadil Akhir 1426 yang memutuskan bahawa produk deposit dan pembiayaan berdasarkan kontrak al-tawarruq atau lebih popular sebagai murabahah komoditi diharuskan. (Resolusi Syariah dalam Kewangan Islam, Bank Negara Malaysia, Mac 2007, hal. 23-25)

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  1. Fatwa Akademi Fiqh OIC

    Resolution 179 (19/5)

    in relation to

    Tawarruq: its meaning and types (classical applications and organized tawarruq)

    The International Council of Fiqh Academy, which is an initiative of the Organization of Islamic Conferences (OIC), in its 19th session which was held in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, from 1 – 5 of Jamadil Ula 1430 AH, corresponding to 26 – 30 April 2009, decided on the following:

    Having reviewed the research papers that were presented to the Council regarding the topic of tawarruq, its meaning and its type (classical applications and organized tawarruq), a resolution were passed. Furthermore, after listening to the discussions that revolved about the applications of tawarruq, the resolutions were presented at the International Council of Fiqh Academy, under auspices of the Muslim World League in Makkah.

    The following were the resolutions:

    First: Types of tawarruq and its juristic rulings:

    * Technically, according to the Fiqh jurists, tawarruq can be defined as: a person (mustawriq) who buys a merchandise at a deferred price, in order to sell it in cash at a lower price. Usually, he sells the merchandise to a third party, with the aim to obtain cash. This is the classical tawarruq, which is permissible, provided that it complies with the Shari’ah requirements on sale (bay’).
    * The contemporary definition on organized tawarruq is: when a person (mustawriq) buys a merchandise from a local or international market on deferred price basis. The financier arranges the sale agreement either himself or through his agent. Simultaneously, the mustawriq and the financier executes the transactions, usually at a lower spot price.
    * Reverse tawarruq: it is similar to organized tawarruq, but in this case, the (mustawriq) is the financial institution, and it acts as a client.

    Second: It is not permissible to execute both tawarruq (organised and reversed) because simultaneous transactions occurs between the financier and the mustawriq, whether it is done explicitly or implicitly or based on common practice, in exchange for a financial obligation. This is considered a deception, i.e. in order to get the additional quick cash from the contract. Hence, the transaction is considered as containing the element of riba.

    The recommendation is as follows:

    To ensure that islamic banking and financial institutions adopt investment and financing techniques that are Shari’ah-compliant in all its activities, they should avoid all dubious and prohibited financial techniques, in order to conform to Shari’ah rules and so that the techniques will ensure the actualization of the Shari’ah objectives (maqasid Shari’ah). Furthermore, it will also ensure that the progress and actualization of the socioeconomic objectives of the Muslim world. If the current situation is not rectified, the Muslim world would continue to face serious challenges and economic imbalances that will never end.

    To encourage the financial institutions to provide Qard Hasan (benevolent loans) to needy customers in order to discourage them from relying on Tawarruq instead of Qard Hasan. Again these institutions are encouraged to set up special Qard Hasan Fund.

  2. TAWARRUQ THROUGH ISLAMIC BANKS

    http://infad.usim.edu.my/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=7913

    Question:

    What is Tawarruq? Is it allowed? Actually some of the Islamic Banks are following this methodology for offering the loans to their customers. For example, if somebody needs a certain amount so the bank is asking to them to purchase the metal, other than gold, on installment. Of course with the profit to the bank. Then they are facilitating the customer to sell that metal with minor commission. Thus finally giving him the amount that he asked.

    In whole the process, the customer is not getting the physical possession of the metal, but in documentation all this processing is going on and this whole processing is taking 2 days (i.e. applying for loan to getting money in the account). So, please advice whether it is Halaal.

    Answer:

    All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, may Allaah exalt his mention as well as that of his family and all his companions.

    Tawarruq is defined in the terminology of the scholars, may Allaah have mercy on them, as buying goods with a delayed payment and then selling it to other than the seller [from whom one bought the goods] in order to obtain cash money. This method is permissible according to the majority of scholars, may Allaah have mercy on them, but they differed somehow as regards its name.

    For this sale to be acceptable, the buyer should fully possess the goods before selling them for the second time, and the second sale should be separate from the first sale. Furthermore, one should not sell the goods to the person from whom one bought them in principle if the cost of the goods is lesser than the price he bought them from him. These conditions are based on evidence. ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, prohibited selling the goods unless one has fully taken possession of it beforehand. [Abu Daawood].

    The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said: “It is prohibited to give a loan with a condition that the debtor buys goods from the lender; two conditions in one sale (like having two prices one in cash payment and another in the delayed payment) are also prohibited, and one is not permitted to benefit from any goods unless it becomes fully in his possession and he can guarantee, and one is not permitted to sell what he does not own.” [At-Tirmithi] Imaam Muslim, may Allaah have mercy on him, also reported that the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, forbade selling food grain until it fully becomes in one’s possession.

    Selling goods with a lesser price than the price one bought them with instalments to the same seller is a kind “Eenah” (this is when one sells a certain goods to someone else for a certain price and for a certain period of time (in instalments), then, before the buyer pays back the whole price, the seller buys back the goods for a lesser price in cash- thus combining two sales within one). Therefore, the way the transaction is done according to what you mentioned in the question is forbidden as the seller [who wants to get some cash money] has not fully taken possession of the goods.

    Allaah Knows best.

    Fatawa Issuing Body : Islam web
    Author/Scholar : Dr. Abdullah Al-faqih
    Date Of Issue : 27 Shawwal 1426

  3. http://islamicfinanceupdates.wordpress.com/2009/01/21/debate-over-commodity-murabahah/

    Points of Essence:

    * It is not always rosy for Islamic financial products which often become subjects of differing views from Islamic scholars on their Shariah compliance. The newest product adopting the concept of commodity murabahah is of no exception. Initially introduced as a money market instrument, it has expanded to other spectrum of financial products. The trade elements tied to the product structure with pre-determined profit rate completing the backbone, commodity murabahah is generally accepted, albeit with caution.
    * Even with one edict banning it claiming its similarity with with interest bearing elements and the other to condition it upon the numbers of contracting parties, this looks like the best bet we have so far as conceptual wise, it is globally accepted. Thus, until we find a better alternative, this product is here to stay. The Star has the report.

    Some Islamic scholars think commodity murabahah should be avoided as much as possible, saying it closely resembles an interest-bearing transaction. Is there a better alternative financing structure?

    THE concept of commodity murabahah (or tawarruq in some jurisdictions) has only recently been widely applied in Islamic finance, along with other syariah contracts such as mudarabah, musharaka and bai murabahah.

    The application of this trade-related structure with a pre-determined profit rate (or pre-agreed “margin” or “mark-up”) is possible in syariah-compliant financing and deposit products as well as in liquidity management/treasury instruments and other investment products/securities.

    However, resistance still exists on the ground from some critics who say that commodity murabahah-based financial products bear a striking resemblance to interest-based products.

    For instance, the Islamic Fiqh Academy of Rabbitah ‘Alam Islami, Makkah ruled in 2003 that any product structure based on the commodity murabahah or tawarruq munazzam concept should be considered as haram, or forbidden by Islamic law.

    By and large, it is not unusual for both Islamic finance and its conventional counterpart to mirror each other given the identical nature of their business of receiving funds, usually by way of deposits, which subsequently will be re-directed towards productive use in various economic activities.

    Indeed, in undertaking financial intermediation functions, both Islamic and conventional finance serve as a medium to mobilise funds from savings surplus economic units, which will be channelled subsequently to savings deficit economic units.

    The commodity murabahah debate entered the fray in Malaysia following Bank Negara’s favourable ruling in 2005 on the permissibility of such a concept.

    As a rule of thumb, a financial contract does not contravene syariah rules as long as its application complies with the essential elements/tenets of any syariah contracts such as cost-plus sale (bai murabaha) and agency (wakalah), as practised in a commodity murabahah structure.

    To clearly draw the lines between Islamic and conventional finance, the application of the commodity murabahah concept is restricted to a handful of financing products such as working capital, personal financing and credit cards whereby the financing is solely for the purpose of providing cash to customers.

    Does the commodity murabahah violate Islamic principles?

    The answer is, no. Not only is it permissible in Malaysia based on a ruling by the Syariah Advisory Council (SAC), it is in fact a globally acceptable syariah compliant structure in particular in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region, being sanctioned by the Bahrain-based Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI).

    Still, the AAOIFI is of the view that the commodity murabahah structure is only acceptable if it involves four parties (a buyer, a seller, the buyer’s commodity broker and the seller’s commodity broker) instead of a tripartite transaction.

    Is there a better alternative financing structure?

    For certain types of financing products such as personal financing and credit cards, commodity murabahah appears as the most ideal structure.

    However, for working capital, Islamic banks may consider a profit-sharing structure such as mudarabah and musharaka although the risks associated with this kind of structure could be relatively higher.

    Indeed, Islamic banks are encouraged to consider this profit-sharing structure for their financing products, deemed as the most acceptable by the majority of syariah scholars.

    Nonetheless, it is of utmost importance that Islamic banks are equipped with appropriate risk mitigation mechanisms, backed by risk officers with the right expertise. – Reuters

    ? Zukri Samat is managing director of Bank Islam, Malaysia’s second biggest Islamic bank by assets. The views expressed in this article are those of the author

    • abewa on August 23, 2013 at 11:26 pm

    persoalan timbul Apakah islam suci ini boleh menerima HELAH?Kknp perlu adanya HELAH DALAM MUAMALAH modern hari ini?bila diamati konsep bai innah @ tawaruqq yg dipraktikan di bank2 saya rasa seolah satu penipuan dalam muamalh,seperti nak menghalalkan yag haram…
    bila dibandingkan bank konvensional dan bank yg mengaku islam nampak tiada perbezaan sama2 cengkik darah juga.kadang nampak mcm bank konvesional lebih baik pulak dari yg (mengaku) bank islam.
    knp Ilmuan hari ini tidak mengambil pandangan yg wang fiat ini bukan daripada item Ribawi?sb wang fiat jauh sangat bezanya dgn emas dan perak untuk diqiaskan..(qias munfariq)kalau kita mengambil pendekatan wang kertas bukan item ribawi jadi taklah susah2 nak buat HELAH dalam Muamalah ni.

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